Whilst the Charterhouse was being rebuilt, an important development was taking place which had a major effect on Sculcoates. This was the building of Hull's first dock, later Queens Dock which was completed in 1778. The Dock Company was empowered to obtain sufficient land to build the dock and also a road linking the Beverley Gate and North Bridge. It was also allowed to dispose of any surplus land for building purposes. This had the dual effect of removing the physical barrier between Hull and Sculcoates and also of encouraging the development of the area to the north of the dock. The various sections of the road which was built were named Savile Street, George Street, Charlotte Street, North Street and Bridge Street. The surrounding area was quickly developed and some fine houses were built in the new suburb. The people who lived there could well afford to escape the cramped living conditions in the 'Old Town'.
Owners of land immediately to the north of the Dock Company's estate also laid out streets and over next few years the area became a very fashionable place to live. Albion Street was the principal street of the estate belonging to Richard Baker, a tobacco manufacturer. The houses, which had gardens with rear access into Baker Street were built between 1788 and 1798. Houses in nearby Jarratt Street were built c1803 on land owned by John Jarratt. In Worship Street, there is a block of houses, built in 1806 on land belonging to Christopher Sykes, which was positioned to look attractive when viewed looking down Jarratt Street. The two landowners with estates furthest away from the dock found it more difficult to develop their land. Wright Street and Pryme Street were both still relatively undeveloped in 1835 when Sculcoates was taken into Hull.
Later buildings in Albion Street include Albion House, which was built c1845 as the home of Dr (later Sir) James Alderson, Honorary Physician to the General Infirmary 1829-44. He was the son of John Alderson who held the same post from 1792-1829. In 1865, it became the Church Institute and included a newsroom, a library and chess, draught and whist rooms. It was derelict for many years but is now a public house and restaurant called the Institute (next to the Central Library building). Close by stood the Albion Chapel which was opened in 1842 with 1500 sittings. It was designed by H F Lockwood at a cost of £8000 but destroyed by bombing in 1941.
Not all the houses in this area were so large and imposing. Some of more modest design were built in 1822 in Caroline Place, part of the Prymes' estate. At that time front gardens had become fashionable and the houses were described in the Hull Advertiser of 13th September 1822 thus:
Houses and Building Ground
Street laid out
"It is planned for houses of a moderate size with small gardens in front."
"The houses will be most desirable for Persons connected with Trade
who may desire a rural and Healthy residence within a few minutes of High Street."
Several notable public buildings appeared in the 1820s and 1830s, including the Public Rooms (now the New Theatre in Kingston Square), designed by Charles Mountain junior and built in 1830. The Royal Institution in Albion Street was built by subscription, the architect being Cuthbert Brodrick. It was opened in 1854, after a visit by the Prince Consort. Initially it housed the Literary and Philosophical Society at the east end and the Subscription Library at the west end. Later it became the City Museum which was destroyed by bombing in 1943. The statues of Minerva and her supporters were saved from the rubble and are now in Nelson Mandela Gardens, next to Wilberforce House.
All of this development was in Sculcoates, not officially Hull, although it obviously has very little connection with the village of Sculcoates, some distance away. Theoretically at any rate, the inhabitants of this area were expected to use the parish church of St Mary over a mile away to the north, although the Hull churches were much nearer. In a belated attempt to solve this problem, a new church was built in Worship Street. It was consecrated in 1822 and named Christ Church. It suffered heavy damage during the Second World War and was eventually demolished. The Roman Catholics also chose this area in which to build a church, St Charles Borromeo in Jarratt Street. It was built in 1829 to serve the growing Catholic population, remodelled in 1835 and again in 1894 when a porch was added. The plain exterior hides a beautiful baroque interior.
During the 1830s, Hull extended its boundaries and Sculcoates officially became a part of the town. Just before this, the Sculcoates Poor Law Union had been formed and in 1844 a new Workhouse (now Kingston General Hospital) was built. By 1850, the southern part of the parish was very well built up but there were almost no houses to the west of Beverley Road. Various industries had also sprung up along the River Hull, as far as the village and beyond.
The Kingston Cotton Mill was one of two mills in Hull. Hull was not a traditional textile area but it was due to the enthusiasm of some local businessmen that these mills were built. Their lack of experience meant that initially the managers and employees had to be recruited from the North Cheshire/Lancashire area. The Kingston Cotton Mill opened in 1845 but suffered periodic difficulties in the 1850s due to the American Civil War which restricted supplies of raw cotton. It eventually closed in 1894. The mill was a large employer in the area, especially of women. The workers from Cheshire and Lancashire included a considerable proportion of those born in Ireland and this may help to explain the high numbers of Catholics in Hull.
Questions of morality were also raised when it was discovered that people of all ages and both sexes were expected to work side by side for hours on end in the mill. There was also a suggestion that young women were able to earn high wages which they were unwilling to share with the rest of their family. This led to a certain amount of friction which could result in the young woman leaving home and setting up house with others in a similar position. It was felt that once these young women had left the protection of their family, it was only a matter of time before they 'fell'. Nothing now remains of the mill.
Houses for those who worked in these industries were built between Beverley Road and the River Hull. They were very different from those in the south around Albion Street as, before the first housing byelaws were passed in Hull in 1854, there were no minimum standards laid down for building houses. Every spare piece of land was used and courts with tunnel entrances and back-back housing were very common. Conditions here were very bad with poor drainage, inadequate sanitation, a shared cold water tap and communal privvies. Those close to the river bank would also have experienced the noxious smells from the boneyards and glue-making processes.
By 1869, the area to the west of Beverley Road was starting to be developed. Pearsons Park was laid out in 1860 on land presented to the town by Zachariah Pearson, a shipowner and Mayor of Hull (1859-60). The village and church, in the northeast corner of the parish were looking increasingly isolated. At this time, a new church, All Saints, was being erected in Margaret Street to serve new houses being built in the area. At this time, St Marys was in need of repair and it was decided that it should close as soon as All Saints was opened. The new church was designed by G E Street and consecrated in 1869. A tower was added in 1883 by Samuel Musgrave in memory of Rev'd Charles Walsham. The church was built on land given by Canon John Jarratt, the vicar of North Cave (hence the nearby Cave Street) and was the first post-Reformation church to be entirely free. It was larger than St Marys and better located to suit the changed needs of the population of Sculcoates. When St Marys closed, All Saints took on the role as parish church. In 1872 however, after only 3 years, St Marys was re-opened but All Saints remained the parish church.
Just before the First World War, plans were drawn up to replace the church of St Mary with a new church further up Sculcoates Lane. The intention was to transfer some of the fixtures and fittings to the new church which was designed by Temple Moore and consecrated in 1917. The architect was asked to scale down his designs several times for financial reasons. Whilst the main church is dedicated to St Mary, there is also a side chapel dedicated to St Francis of Assisi. When the old church was taken down, the east window, columns, screen, chandelier and some pews were incorporated into the St Francis chapel. The font, originally a wine cooler owned by the Hotham family was also transferred form the old building to the new as were several of the memorials. Not all of the old church was taken down immediately; the tower was only demolished in the 1950s. For some years after the new church had been built, an annual service took place on site of the old church.
Some old buildings still remain in Sculcoates including several chapels which have been put to other uses. The Primitive Methodist chapel which was built on Wincolmlee in 1842 and extended in 1846 to include Sunday School rooms was closed in 1872. In 1879 it became a Salvation Army barracks and is now (inappropriately) a wines and spirits warehouse. The former Wesleyan chapel in Scott Street was built in 1804 with seating for 600. It was rebuilt in 1850, when the front was stuccoed, and further altered in 1859 but closed 1910. The old parish school still stands on Bankside, close to the site of the old church. It was built in 1852 but closed and sold in 1908. Money from the sale of the school financed the Parish Hall on the corner of Folkestone Street and Sculcoates Lane. This was sold in 1973 and is now a joiners workshop.